Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Stone Dictionary of Starborn Creations
This stone dictionary will give you first insight into the world of minerals, describing our utilized materials that are featured in our fabulous jewelry lines. If you have any further questions about our jewelry please contact

Abalone: The Paua Shell from the marine Abalone snail is mainly found on New Zealand´s coasts, shining in opal rainbow colors and thus also called Ocean-Opal or Sea-Opal. Long known in the pacific region as jewelry and a religious item decorating ceremonies and holy places. In Europe Abalone is also famous for its culinaric value.

Agate: Agate is a cryptocrystallin variety of Quartz (SiO2 ), which shows beautiful concentric pictures when cut and polished. Those structures are based upon rhythmic crystallization in layers of different Chalcedony. Agates are often filled geodes, found in many different varieties like Montana Agate, Crazy-lace, Snakeskin and Fire agate (USA, Botswana, China, Mexico).

Anazasi-Pottery: Original pottery shard from the Anazasi tribes in today’s area of the Midwest USA. Their culture began 700 AD and they vanished before the new world was even discovered, supposedly around 1400 AD. The Anazasi are believed to be not nomadic and they were extremely creative pottery artists, building household goods and furnished houses using the regional red, beige or ocher colored clay mixtures.

Ammonite: Cephalopod which once swam in shallow marine seas and whose different species are long extinct. The closest living relative to the Ammonite is the chambered Nautilus in the Pacific Ocean. Like the chambered Nautilus, the Ammonite's ability to swim was due to the unique construction of its shell, which contained many air filled chambers. Already in early mankind the fossilized Ammonite served as a cultic talisman and symbolic charm. We are using this Fossil from many sites such as Madagascar (opalized), France (hematitic), Russia (pyrotized) or the older fossils from Morocco.

Amethyst: The violet-purple form of Quartz (SiO2 ) is called Amethyst. For centuries the stone is famous as a jewel but also as a healing stone. In daylight or heat the Amethyst may loose color or change to a citrine color. World-famous are the huge Amethyst geodes from Uruguay, which evolved in porous Lava rock with circulating mineral fluids. Our Amethyst comes from Brazil/Uruguay, India or Tanzania.

Amazonite: This copper green Feldspar is known since Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859) explored South America and it was believed due to an old native myth to come from Amazonia, “the land of women without men.” We use polished Amazonite from Brazil.

Amber: Amber is a very ancient gem and known for thousands of years especially around the Baltic Sea. It is proven to be one of the first exporting goods from that area to trade spices, salt and metals. Baltic Amber is composed of pine tree sap that has fossilized 40-50 million years ago. It has been treasured ever since pieces were discovered washed ashore, being freed by ocean currents from sedimentary deposits in the marine sediments. Amber has also been valued for it's assumed magical and medical properties. The gem was not only thought to protect the living, but also to speed up the journey of the soul after death. In ancient Scandinavia an amber talisman was placed in tombs along with other treasures to protect the soul during it's journey. Different ages of fossilized sap from many different tree species are found around the world. Older finds date 200 million years e.g. smaller specimen from the Swiss Alps. Other good finds, partly with insect and even small lizard inclusions come from the Dominican Republic and Chiapas/Mexico. Sulfur inclusions causing a blue reflection can also be found in the Caribbean. Copal, more recent Amber (100-1000.000 years) is found mainly in Columbia, South Asia, Africa’s midwest and Madagascar. Copal can be reconstructed by heat and pressure and is today also commonly used in jewelry or reconstructed specimen. For our designs we use polished natural specimen from the Baltic and Chiapas.

Ametrine: Quartz with the optical properties of Amethyst and Citrine. Ametrine was only discovered in the 80`s in South America and it is a rare gemstone. Through partial heating and particle irradiation Ametrine can be produced out of both its components, but often not showing the clear color line of genuine natural Ametrine. Main source for the stone in Brazil.

Andean Opal: Genuine green-blue Opal from South America, often with small black inclusions. The stone could be mistaken for Chrysoprase but shows darker green and is a material lower in hardness and lighter in weight. We use polished Andean or Peruvian Opal from Peru.

Aquamarine: The name of this Beryl comes from Latin for “ocean water“. The mineral was used to produce the first reading-glasses and it is historically worshiped as the stone for clear sight and vision. A six-sided symmetrical crystal formation identifies Aquamarine as well as its green to blue color variations. We design jewelry with rough Aquamarine crystals as well as polished and faceted Gemstones of this Beryl coming from Afghanistan and Brazil.

Azurite-Malachite: Azurite occurs in association with other minerals (Malachite, Chrysocolla, Calcite). It is pale blue to indic blue, transparent or translucent. Both minerals exist close to copper ore and under certain rare environmental conditions (carbon-dioxide saturated water running along the border of both mineral layers) Azurite and Malachite fuse to one mineral. Under high pressure Azurite-Malachite can also originate as a reconstruction. In the past it was crushed to produce a colorful pigment.

Boulder Opal: Also see Opal. It is an amorphous mineral (no crystal structures or other regularly grown forms) which is formed by a drying mineraloid gel which is slowly deposited at relatively low temperature under 100°C and may occur in the matrix of any kind of rock. Boulder Opal is found in Australia, where the Opal is the national stone. Beautiful veins with opalizing effects run through iron oxide mineral matrix and the slight surface polishing is the secret to produce gem quality pieces.

Bronzite: Bronze colored gemstone with metallic luster of the mineral Enstatite, related to Hypersthen. A historic mine for the Enstatite variety Bronzite is in Bad Harzburg (Germany) but the mineral can be found in many countries.

Carnelian: Also see Chalcedony. This red impure microcrystalline variety of Chalcedony is often found as a tumbled stone. The red color is caused by iron. The oxidation of this iron can be triggered by fire, which was known also in earlier times and frequently used today to improve the red color of this mineral.

Chalcedony: All microcrystalline (crypto-crystalline) fibrous forms of Silica (mainly Quartz) are called Chalcedony. Most famous color for Chalcedony is bluish (Lavender Chalcedony). Many other colored stones also belong to the mineral but are named individually: clear red chalcedony is known as Carnelian, the green variety colored by nickel is called Chrysoprase, Chalcedony with concentric banding is known as Agate. Flint is also a variety of Chalcedony as well as black Onyx.

Chalcedony Rose: Also see Drusy. A naturally grown Chalcedony rose (Concha) from the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) which we use with a slight metallic plating of Silica on the crystals.

Champagne Topaz: see Topaz

Charoite: Only findings are known near the Siberian river Chara (hence the name). In Russia a long known gemstone with typical fibrous structures in dark violet colors (similar to Suggilite). Different dark inclusions are common and make the easily polishable stone more interesting in appearance. Because of its limited mining area (Charoite is not rare in that region) the mineral has become a valuable gemstone and increased in popularity over the past years.

Chiastolite: An Andalusite that shows an impressive cross on its polished cross section. The rhombic crystals are cut in slices and polished, which displays the dark cross profile on the brownish matrix best. As a Nordic rune stone and talisman the Chiastolith was already popular in ancient times. The name Cross Stone is also used but interferes with the Staurolite carrying the same common name.

Chrysocola: Normally this copper mineral is associated with Malachite, Azurite and Cuprite, it occurs in bright green or bluish, translucent with vitreous to greasy luster. It is found in Chile, USA, Africa, Italy, Russia and Morocco. We find our Chrysocolla mainly in the south American Andes.

Chrysoprase: Also see Chalcedony. Apple green variety of the silica mineral Chalcedony, the color is caused by Nickel-oxide. Historic European mining sites in Bohemia, but today the stone comes mainly from Australia (Queensland).

Citrine: Lemon to orange yellow variation of Quartz (SiO2). Since the stones from natural sites are rare and the demand for Citrine increased steadily, is it probable that most of today’s Citrine on the market does not originate from natural sites. Heat or low irradiation causes some Quartze (e.g. Amethyst) to turn to Citrine, which also occurred naturally under rare conditions (bush fire, volcanic activity). We use orange yellow Brazilian Citrine and the so called Green Gold Citrine, which is not a genuine Citrine but a lemon yellow variety of Quartz mainly coming from Brazil and Africa.

Copper: Opaque with metallic luster in copper-red color, often with a greenish film of Malachite. Natural copper nuggets were always known as currency or trading items. Especially the Indian tribes along the west coast of Canada and the US used Copper nuggets as jewelry and decorative items for rituals. Naturally tumbled nuggets of copper can be found in the streams and rivers of Canada`s western regions. We use copper nuggets and cabochons mainly from the US and Canada.

Cyanite: See Disthen

Dendritic Quartz: Clear Rock crystal (SiO2) with plant-like inclusions which resemble plants but are supposedly caused by Manganese crystallizations during the cooling process of the yet soft Quartz mineral. Our Manganese Dendrites are mined in India and Brazil.

Disthen: Cyanite or Disthen forms long and deep intruding crystals of black or blue color in Schiefer. Its color and hardness depends not on different ingredients but on the pressure and temperature during its metamorphic evolution. Along the crystals the mineral is rather soft and fibrous when broken. As the Cyanite is resistant to fire, acid and climate it was used in thin layers as window glass in former centuries. As a gemstone for jewelry Cyanite has only recently been discovered and can be used as rough handpicked crystals or polished gems in deep blue colors.

Drusy: The matrix stone of this agate-geode is Chalcedony, which has small crystallizations of Quartz on the surface. We use mainly black or yellowish natural Drusy. Recently natural Drusy with a µm thick metal-coating are becoming more popular in gemstone jewelry. Those enhanced natural stones are plated with genuine Rose Gold, Platinum, Silica, Titanium and other precious and non-precious metals. The metal deposit is totally indifferent to everyday-influences such as water, friction or skin contact. The process (Vapor Deposition Plating) and durability of this metal plating on Quartz is comparable to the mirroring surface on sunglasses. The coating on the mostly Indonesian stone is produced for us by a world leading US-laboratory for VDP. With this fusion of genuine gemstone and metal luster we added a new and brilliant accent to our designs.

Ecstasy Topaz: See Topaz

Fireagate: Also see Agate. This stone shows a glowing iron-induced optical effect covered by brownish agate. Leaving only a very thin layer of Agate above the inclusions is crucial but once the iron inclusion surfaces too much, the stone looses its fire. This Chalcedony (Agate) is found in Mexico where it occurs in Agate geodes and fist size bulbous aggregates.

Fire Opal: Also see Opal. It is an amorphous mineral (no crystal structures or other regularly grown forms), formed by a drying mineraloid gel which is slowly deposited at relatively low temperature and may occur in the matrix of any kind of rock. Fireopal is mined in Mexico; oftentimes the natural opal is embedded in reconstructed matrix.

Fossil: Fossils are mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. Fossilization is an exceptionally rare occurrence, because most components of formerly living beings tend to decompose quickly following death. In order for an organism to be fossilized, the remains normally need to be covered by sediment (or other materials like tree sap) as soon as possible. Mineral concentrations occurring during the fossilization define the consistency, hardness and the different colors of fossil findings. In our jewelry we utilize petrified tree sap, ammonite, coral, trilobite, shark teeth, seashells, snails, sand dollars (sea urchin), wild horses fossil teeth, dinosaur bone and various fossilized woods.

Fluorite: Fluorite (also called Fluorspar) is a mineral composed of Calcium and Fluoride. It grows in very symetrical crystals with a cubic habit and is famous for its color variety. As a gemstone used in jewelry it is beautiful in facetation and polished but very sensitive to pressure due to the low hardness. It exists almost worldwide and Fluorite is mainly mined as a source to produce Fluor.

Freshwater pearl: Pearls mainly consist of Aragonite, which is formed by a shell around an intruding particle. With cultured freshwater mussels the growth of the pearl is triggered by a little cut in the epithelcells on the inside of the shell. Lacking a nucleus, those freshwater pearls are often not perfectly rounded, but are said to be more resistant against pressure, acid or sunlight-induced fading in color. It is also easier with Freshwater pearls to culture freeform or odd shaped objects by specific manipulation of the epithel cut. Those different shaped or half round pearls are generally called Mabe or Blisterpearls.

Golden Labradorite: An Orthoclase that is found in lemon and golden colors. The trade name Golden Labradorite is not quite correct for this stone is not a mixed composure of minerals (as Labradorite), but a real Feldspar. Our golden Orthoclase is mined in Mexico, where small naturally tumbled pieces are found in secondary beds of soft sediment. It has a lighter yellow but stronger reflection when faceted as Citrine, which it is often mistaken for.

Garnet: Large mineralogical group with cubic crystal formations and various colors. We often use the classical Red Garnet faceted and as natural crystal specimen, as well as orange Hessonite and green and black crystallized Garnet Drusy.

Green Gold Citrine: Also see Citrine. The so-called Green gold Citrine or Lemon Quartz (SiO2) has risen in the last years to a desired gemstone. The reason is an increasing demand for Citrine colored gems due to a natural limitation of genuine Citrine deposits. The main supply of Lemon Quartz comes from Brazil and Africa.

Hypersthen: Beautiful silica-mineral, that reveals its beauty only by the right kind of polishing. Hypersthen is created in iron-und magnesia saturated volcanic surroundings, developing crystals as well as rough and chunky units. The scientific name derives from its attribute of being harder than its relative Bronzite, due to a higher iron percentage (hyper: above, stenos: strength).

Hematite: Also called Bloodstone and long adored as a healing stone. This common iron ore mineral develops beautiful structures with crystals or sometimes grape shaped bulbous aggregates like the bubbled Hematite in grey, brown or black.

Herkimer Diamond: See Quartz

Hiddenite: This beautifully crystallizing mineral belongs to the Spodumen, like the related Kunzite. Hiddenite is like its relative, very soft in color so that we prefer the natural crystal structure instead of a faceted gemstone. Hiddenite can be found in Afghanistan.

Iolite: Iolite or Watersaphire is the gem variety of the mineral Cordierit. The color of gem quality Cordierit varies from light to dark blue. This stone is famous for a color changing optical effect when the stone is watched from different angles.

Imperial Topaz: Rare Topaz from Minas Gerais/Brasil. Not to be confused with “Madeira Topaz“ or “Rio Grande Topaz“, which are in general merely burned Amethysts from the south of Brazil or Uruguay. The genuine imperial Topaz is only mined around the city of Mariana/Minas Gerais in the middle of the “sea of mountains“ embedded in soft clay sediment. Its brilliant color ranges from golden to red and even pink. The mined crystals rarely extend 10 cm in length, so that clear and large facetations over 10-carat stone weight are extremely rare. For our silver jewelry we only use small rough crystals of this gemstone. Similar to high quality faceted imperial Topaz is an enhanced variation of white Topaz, so that we use the more affordable Mystic Ecstasy variation in our jewelry designs, a gemstone produced by plating titanium oxide on genuine white Topaz.

Jasper: Jasper is an opaque, impure variety of Quartz (SiO2), very variable in color. It is extremely changeable in its physical and chemical properties due to external impurities from other elements and minerals. Those external composure cause the color and pattern of the stone. Countless varieties of Jasper are known; for our Designs we use this mineral with names such as Ocean Jasper, Lilypad Jasper, Imperial Jasper and Picture Jasper.

Kunzite: A so called Spodumen, (as well as Hiddenite), whose soft rose colors resemble light Amethyst. We prefer Kunzite as rough Crystal specimen in our jewelry so that the valuable stone cannot be mistaken for faceted low quality Amethyst. The crystals of this Spodumen are delivered from Afghanistan, Africa or Brazil.

Labradorite: A mineral mixture of several relatives of the Feldspar-group is called Labradorite. Typical is the so-called labradorescence, an optical effect caused by interfering microscopic lamella under the polished surface. The shine is strongest and reveals all colors in the Spectrolite variety from Finland. We work with Labradorite cabochons from North America, Madagascar and Finland.

Larimar: A blue Pektolite which only is found on the Dominican Republic. The mines are located in a barely accessible mountain area, where empty volcanic tubes host the Larimar underground. A dark blue color of the polished cabochon is most rare and contrasting white clouds and green Chlorite inclusions make this Caribbean stone a treat for all mineral lovers. Because of its unique locality and fascinating appearance the so called Atlantis Stone has become the shooting star of Gemstones over the last years.

Lepidolite: A rather soft mineral often occurring in Pegmatite and found as a by-product in Turmaline mines. The color ranges from soft raspberry to dark violet. A new find of so called Coconut Lepidolite was made in Brazil in old and inoperative Turmaline mines, which were closed for decades and the rare Coconut Lepidolite remained undiscovered until a few years ago. The silver bubbly reflection under the surface of this newly discovered mineral is an unusual optical phenomenon and makes the stone a valuable addition to our portfolio of gemstones.

Malachite: The high share of Copper (>50%) gives the Malachite its intensive green color. The stone is a decomposition product of Copper ore and is often accompanied by other Copper minerals such as Azurite or Chrysocolla. Despite its low hardness the stone is traditionally used for decorational items and gemstone jewelry. We prefer for our work Mexican Malachite-stalactites, which show exceptional structure and have a good stability for polishing.

Moldavite: The Moldavite is a Tectite and believed to be formed 15 million years ago by impact of a giant Meteorite in present-day Nordlinger Ries (Germany). The Moldavite glass evolved in its unique patterns as molten green Silica mineral was blasted over 500 km in the impact-opposite direction in billions of splatters that cooled down airborne and fell in central Bohemia. Its rare occurrence, marvelous structure and intense green color make Moldavite highly valued. The stone is also very popular for its metaphysical healing qualities. In the whole Czech Republic there are now only four moldavite mines and the mineral is believed to be fully exploited in some years. We use natural specimen as well as faceted and polished Moldavite.

Moonstone: Moonstone belongs to the Feldspar group. The traditional mining countries are India and Sri Lanka, where the most precious pieces with blueish rainbow reflection are found. Stones in orange, grey and brown are also used in jewelry. Because of its low hardness, Moonstone is sensitive to pressure and friction but nevertheless one of the most popular gemstones in silver jewelry.

Opal: Opal is an amorphous mineral (no crystal structures or other regularly grown forms) which is formed by a mineraloid gel which is slowly deposited at relatively low temperatures (<100°c) upala="Gemstone)." class="Apple-style-span" style="font-weight: bold;">Peridot: The bright green gemstone coming from the mineral Olivine is called Peridot. Starting in the 15th century the stone was treasured and used for jewelry for its striking light green color. The most beautiful specimen come form the Midwest Indian reservations of the USA as well as the mountains of Afghanistan. We mostly use faceted and naturally tumbled Peridot, recently also the rare crystal tips of the stones found in Afghanistan. In addition we work with polished Olivine matrix which includes wonderful green veins of genuine Peridot.

Pearl: See Freshwater pearl

Pietersite: This mineral from Namibia is a relatively new stone on the market, named after mine owner Josef Pieterse. Pietersite is a so called mineral-breccia (conglomeration) of several similar minerals (e.g. different colored fibers of Tigeriron) which reformed and naturally re-cemented under high pressure of geological movements, showing a beautiful wide range of different golden or bluish fibre-structures.

Prehnite: Calcium-Aluminium-Mineral, usually occurring in round geode shaped aggregates, which have the best colored lemon-yellow Prehnite in gem quality hidden in the very centre of the geode. We use for our jewelry polished Prehnite from Australia, the main source for this stone. The name comes from a Dutch officer Prehn who brought the mineral to Europe for scientific examination in the beginning of the 18th century.

Printsstone: This outback mineral is also called Zebra stone and is found only in western parts of Australia, where the Printstone has always been valued as a talisman and sign of good fortune. The polished cabochon shows regular dots and zebra-like stripes in redish and brown colors on mostly lighter background. The red color is caused by Iron oxide inclusions, but the origin and genesis of the regular structure is not cleared.

Psilomelane: This mineral is an opaque Manganese ore in black color and reveals beautiful silverish structures on the metallic surface when polished. It is used mainly for manganese production. We find our Psilomelane with finest structures in Mexico.

Pyrite: This stone is also called Fools-gold and belongs to the sulfide family. In Greek pyr describes the word fire, because Flintstone is capable of lighting and burning small pieces of Pyrite when the two stones hit together. Pyrite is also known to accumulate in thin layers on other minerals (many fossilizations e.g. pyritized Ammonite). Pyrit in its cubic crystal form is occurring frequently and due to its good hardness it can be used in various forms for our gemstone jewelry.

Quartz: Rock crystal or Quartz is the clear manifestation of SiO2. The mineral occurs worldwide but only as clear crystal specimen or including rare mineral inclusions it is a valuable gemstone. The clearest and most interesting crystal structures come from Minas Gerais /Brasil, the worlds biggest producer of Quartz. We use this mineral in form of natural crystal specimen and faceted and polished cut stones. The small bi-terminated variation of Rock crystal is called Herkhimer Diamond (named after the famous mine in Herkimer County NY/USA).

Rhodochrosite: The stone belongs to the Manganese-Carbonate-Minerals and polished pieces can often be identified by their concentric agate-like rims (in lighter color) on the rose-red stone. The name derives from greek rhodos =rose und chroma =color. It occurs mainly as thin layers in Manganese ore and is used for the industrial production of the metal. Most of the gem quality Rhodochrosite supply for the jewelry market comes from Argentina, where Rhodochrosite deposited in stalactites as manganese-saturated soakage and rainwater steadily dropped from the cave ceilings.

Rock Crystal: See Quartz

Rose Quartz: Rose colored variety of the mineral Quartz (SiO2). The color exists due to trace amounts of Titanium, Iron or Mangnese as well as natural radiation occurring close to the mineral (natural radiation creates clear Rose Quartz). The stone is rarely found in crystal form, only specimen from Minas Gerais/Brasil are known to show crystallized structure. Rose Quartz has always been positively linked to matters of love, harmony and the heart.

Ruby: A red Corund (Corund of other color is called Sapphire), whose color qualities derive from the element Chrome. The Ruby was already mentioned in the old testament and is historically considered the “stone of love and life.” Since 1835 the synthesis and color enhancement of natural Ruby is known and due to the rarity of this gemstone in high qualities it became a common process in jewelry production.

Rutilated Quartz: Rock crystal (SiO2) with inclusions of the mineral Rutile, which crystallized in multitude of fine needles during the formation of the Quartz. Because of its golden brown color and the optical effect of clear Quartz the Rutile-needles are often mistaken for Gold inclusions. Rutilated Quartz in our jewelry comes mainly from Brazil, which is known to produce the most beautiful rutile inclusions in SiO2 such as perfectly symmetrical Rutile stars.

Seraphenite: Seraphenite include a golden and a green variety of this Clinochlor found in Russia (Ural, Siberia). It was discovered in the middle of the 19th century and since then the mineral is used in jewelry and stone art despite its rather low hardness.

Smokey Quartz: Brownish-smokey form of the mineral Quartz (SiO2). Genesis mostly caused by natural radioactivity close to the site. Large quantities of Smokey Quartz come from Brazil, often including minerals like chloride oder rutile. The best and most valued pieces are of good clarity and dark smokey color. We use natural Smokey crystal tips as well as the faceted stone.

Staurolite: This Cross Stone (equal unscientific name as the Chiastolith) is found in often prismatic twinning crystals which frequently show crosses ranging from 60-90°. The name is derived from Greek stauros = cross. The stone was already worshiped in ancient times as a good luck charm and religious symbol. It is the official state mineral of Georgia, where it is as well found as it is in the Alpes (Baseler Taufstein). We find our supply of Staurolite in Siberia, which is today’s main source of this unique stone.

Sugilite: The bright purple and violet colored opaque stone is mined only in South Africa as a by-product of the local Manganese production. It is a conglomerate containing up to 16 different minerals and has become high-valued due to scarcity and its unique color variety.

Swarovski Crystal: Faceted traditional art glass produced by the famous Austrian Family Swarovski. The crystals are plated from the backside with mirroring metals, causing a strong and brilliant reflection even without abundant light rays falling through the stone. This reflective firework allows us to create the fascinating fusion of original Swarovski Crystals with various natural materials such as Lava, Gemstones or Pearl (products of our line GemArt Design). In addition we use ceramic inlays with embedded Swarovski Crystals on many silver links in our jewelry. This art-glass adds a festive and sparkling note to our natural stone designs.

Topaz: Topaz is a rather rare silicate mineral of a very good hardness. The white Topaz is the most common stone in this group. Color variations of white Topaz are caused by natural radioactivity (blue), heat or included metal particles. The stone can vary in appearance from blue and pink to reddish golden colors (imperial Topaz from Brazil). Since the most beautifully colored stones are scarce and technical enhancement is known, most of the Topaz varieties on the jewelry market are technically upgraded in color or clarity. This enhancement always requires genuine white Topaz and is caused by heat, particle irradiation or metal plating. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of Topaz in iridescent colors (so called Mystic Topaz) by applying a thin layer of metal such as Titanium by physical Vapor Deposition Plating. For our designs we use natural Imperial Topaz as well as natural and enhanced white and blue Topaz, several kinds of so called Mystic Topaz (e.g. Ecstasy, Salmon, Pink), and the brownish Champagne Topaz. All our showcased Topazes are genuine and rare, yet affordable gemstones, whose color properties are almost equal to the worlds most expensive and rare specimen.

Trilobite: Trilobites are extinct sea creatures that were one of the first forms of life on earth. The closest extant relative may be the Horseshoe Crab. Trilobites ruled the world before the time of the dinosaurs during the Palaeozoic Era (between 545 and 251 million years ago). To cast Trilobites in our jewelry we first have to clean the petrified Arthropod with a sandblaster before the final cutting and polishing process allows us to use this interesting Fossil in our creations. We mostly work with the long extinct species Elrathia kingsi from Utah/USA.

Turquoise: This classical jewelry mineral is easily identified by its unique structure and opaque blue and green color (except few brown-white colored varieties). The most famous findings come from the midwest region of the US (e.g. the Kingman-Mine). China and Mexico also a large producers of gem quality Turquoise. Due to its softness almost all turquoise has to be stabilized before being polished and processed for jewelry. This process also helps to prevent color loss (caused by sun, water and air) and makes the stone less vulnerable to pressure.

Tourmaline: The Tourmaline group includes many Silica-minerals with complex and varying chemical composure. Tourmaline is the only stone found in all imaginable colors, caused by several replaceable metals such as Aluminium, Iron or Chrome in the chemical formula. Even in one crystal the color can vary strongly such as in the famous Watermelon Tourmaline. The striped surface structure of the prismatic Tourmaline crystals is as well used for our design as polished and faceted stones in all colors. Our Tourmaline is mainly mined in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia) and Africa (Tanzania, Namibia).
Tourmalinated Quartz: Mineral inclusion of black Tourmaline crystals and needles (Schörl) in clear Rock crystal (SiO2). Mostly coming from Brazil and Tanzania.

Zoisite: Named after Freiherr von Zois in the 18th century, this Calzium-Aluminiumsilicat is a rather rare mineral. Interesting colors in gem quality offer Norwegian Thulit (pink-redish), Tanzanite (blue) and Anyolith (or Ruby-Zoisite). Crystallized Zoisite often shows horizontal stripes on the prismatic crystals, similar to rough Tourmaline. The mineral is found worldwide, Tanzanite only Tanzania, Thulit mainly from Norway.

Any implied published healing properties of stones are merely the expression of a personal opinion. They should not be misunderstood as medical information and should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-healing. For detailed information about healing qualities of stones contact your physician or therapist.